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Sunday, 3 March 2013

Bharat Ratna

BHARAT RATNA

  • Bharat Ratna (Jewel of India or Gem of India in English) is the Republic of India's highest civilian award, for performance of highest order in any field of human endeavour.
  • Any person without distinction of race, occupation, position or sex is eligible for the award. However the recommendations for Bharat Ratna are to be made by the Prime Minister of India to the President of India. 
  • The holders of the Bharat Ratna rank 7th in the Indian order of precedence; however they do not carry any special title nor any other honorifics.
  • The original statutes of January 1954 did not make allowance for posthumous awards (and this perhaps explains why the decoration was never awarded to Mahatma Gandhi), though this provision was added in the January 1966 statute.
  • The award was briefly suspended from 13 July 1977 to 26 January 1980.
  •  While there was no formal provision that recipients of the Bharat Ratna should be Indian citizens, this seems to have been the general assumption. 
  • The actual award is designed in the shape of a peepul leaf and carries with the words "Bharat Ratna", inscribed in Devanagari script. The reverse side of the medal carries the state emblem and motto. The award is attached to a 2-inch-wide (51 mm) ribbon, and was designed to be worn around the recipient's neck.
  •  In 2011, the Government of India modified the eligibility criteria to allow sportspersons to receive the award and opened the award for performance of highest order in any field of human endeavour from the earlier criteria for the highest degrees of national service. This service includes artistic, literary, and scientific achievements, as well as "recognition of public service of the highest order."
  • Indira Gandhi is the youngest person alive at the time of receiving the award (at the age of 54).
  •  Rajiv Gandhi is the youngest overall to receive the Bharat Ratna (posthumously at the age of 47).
  •   Gulzarilal Nanda is the eldest person alive at the time of receiving the award (age 99).


List of Bharat Ratna Winners:

1. Late Pandit Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi in 2008 : Karnataka
 
2. Kumari Lata Dinanath Mangeshkar in 2001 : Maharashtra
 
3. Late Ustad Bismillah Khan in 2001 for contribution in the field of Arts : Uttar Pradesh
 
4. Prof. Amartya Sen in1999 for Literature & Education : United Kingdom
 
5. Lokpriya Gopinath (posth.) Bordoloi in1999, for Public Affairs : Assam
 
6. Loknayak Jayprakash (Posth.) Narayan in 1999 for Public Affairs: Bihar
 
7. Pandit Ravi Shankar in 1999 for his contribution in the field of Arts : United States
 
8. Shri Chidambaram Subramaniam in 1998 for Public Affairs : Tamil Nadu
 
9. Smt. M.S. Subbulakshmi in 1998 for her contribution in the field of Arts : Tamil Nadu
 
10. Dr APJ Abdul Kalam in 1997 for his contribution in the field of Science and Engineering : Delhi
 
11. Smt. Aruna Asaf (Posth.) Ali in 1997 for her contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Delhi
 
12. Shri Gulzari Lal Nanda in 1997 for his contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Gujarat
 
13. Shri JRD Tata in 1992 for his contribution in the field of Trade & Industry : Maharashtra
 
14. Shri Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in 1992 for his contribution in Public Affairs : West Bengal
 
15. Shri Satyajit Ray in 1992 for his contribution in the field of Arts : West Bengal
 
16. Shri Morarji Ranchhodji Desai in 1991 for his contribution in Public Affairs : Gujarat
 
17. Shri Rajiv Gandhi in 1991 for his contribution in Public Affairs : Delhi
 
18. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in 1991 for his contribution in Public Affairs : Gujarat
 
19. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedakr in 1990 for his contribution in Public Affairs : Maharashtra
 
20. Dr. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela in 1990 for his contribution in Public Affairs : South Africa
 
21. Shri Marudur Gopalan Ramachandran in 1988 for contribution in Public Affairs : Tamil Nadu
 
22. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan in 1987 for contribution in the field of Social Work : Pakistan
 
23. Shri Acharya Vinoba Bhave in 1983 for contribution in the field of Social Work : Maharashtra
 
24. Mother Teresa in 1980 for contribution in the field of Social Work : West Bengal
 
25. Shri Kumaraswamy Kamraj in 1976 for contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Tamil Nadu
 
26. Shri V.V. Giri in 1975 for contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Orissa
 
27. Smt. Indira Gandhi in 1971 for contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Uttar Pradesh
 
28. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966 for contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Uttar Pradesh
 
29. Dr. Pandurang Vaman Kane in 1963 for contribution in the field of Social Work : Maharashtra
 
30. Dr. Zakir Hussain in 1963 for contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Andhra Pradesh
 
31. Dr. Rajendra Prasad in 1962 for contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Bihar
 
32. Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy in 1961 for contribution in the Field of Public Affairs: West Bengal
 
33. Shri Purushottam Tandon in 1961 for contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Uttar Pradesh
 
34. Dr. Dhondo Keshav Karve in 1958 for contribution in the field of Social Work : Maharashtra
 
35. Pt. Govind Ballabh Pant in 1957 for contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Uttar Pradesh
 
36. Dr. Bhagwan Das in 1955 for contribution in Literature & Education : Uttar Pradesh
 
37. Shri Jawaharlal Nehru in 1955 for contribution in the field of Public Affairs : Uttar Pradesh
 
38. Dr. M. Vishweshwariah in 1955 for contribution in the field of Civil Service : Karnataka
 
39. Shri Chakravarti Rajagopalachari in 1954 for contribution in Public Affairs : Tamil Nadu
 
40. Dr. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman in 1954 in Science & Engineering: Tamil Nadu
 
41. Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan in 1954 for contribution in Public Affairs : Tamil Nadu

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